10 июня, 2006

Определение искусства

Никто лучше не сказал об искусстве, чем Гомбрич, автор "The Story of Art", всемирно известной книги по истории искусств, пережившей c 1950 года 16 изданий совокупным тиражом, превышающим 6,000,000 экземпляров. Это второе по авторитетности издание после "Janson's History of Art", весит 2 кг и содержит 700 страниц. Так что же сказал об искусстве один из главных мировых искусствоведов мира и поместил это в заголовок своего основного труда? А вот что:

Часто в определение искусства закладывают категории субъективной красоты: искусство - это то, что можно назвать прекрасным. Это не правда или правда только отчасти. Не менее часто искусство определяют как что-то, что имеет характеристику экспрессии или эмоционального выражения. Точно так же, эта характеристика не может быть положена в базовое определение. Выдуманная "идейность" или "концептульность" вообще не выдерживают никакой критики и никакими необходимыми условиями с искусством не связаны.

Гомбрич говорит что нет вообще такой вещи как искусство, есть только художник! И то что делает художник - это искусство. Процесс творчества не может быть описан или формализирован, но у него есть одна характеристика - у художника есть критерий "правильности". Вот этот самый критерий "правильности" и есть критерий искусства.

Those ideas, on the other hand, that we outsiders usually worry about, ideas about beauty and expression, are rarely mentioned by artists. It was not always like that, but it was so for many centuries in the past, and it is so again now. The reason is partly that artists are often shy people who would think it embarrassing to use big words like 'Beauty'. They would feel rather priggish if they were to speak about 'expressing their emotions' and to use similar catchwords. Such things they take for granted and find it useless to discuss.

That is one reason, and, it seems, a good one. But there is another. In the actual everyday worries of the artist these ideas play a much smaller part than outsiders would suspect. What an artist worries about as he plans his pictures, makes his sketches, or wonders whether he has completed his canvas, is something much more difficult to put into words. Perhaps he would say he worries about whether he has got it 'right'. Now it is only when we understand what he means by that modest little word 'right' that we begin to understand what artists are really after.

He has, on his canvas, perhaps hundreds of shades and forms which he must balance till they look 'right'. A patch of green may suddenly look too yellow because it was brought into too close proximity with a strong blue - he may feel that all is spoiled, that there is a jarring note in the picture and that he must begin it all over again. He may suffer agonies over this problem. He may ponder about it in sleepless nights; he may stand in front of his picture all day trying to add a touch of colour here or there and rubbing it out again, though we might not have noticed the difference either way. But once he has succeeded we all feel that he has achieved something to which nothing could be added, something which is right - an example of perfection in our very imperfect world.

It is fascinating to watch an artist striving to achieve the right balance, but if we were to ask him why he did this or changed that, he might not be able to tell us. He does not follow any fixed rules. He just feels his way. It is true that some artists or critics in certain periods have tried to formulate laws of their art; but it always turned out that poor artists did not achieve anything when trying to apply these laws, while great masters could break them and yet achieve a new kind of harmony no one had thought of before.

The truth is that it is impossible to lay down rules of any kind because one can never know in advance what effect the artist may wish to achieve. He may even want a shrill, jarring note if he happens to feel that that would be right. As there are no rules to tell us when a picture or statue is right it is usually impossible to explain in words exactly why we feel that it is a great work of art.

Все что было сказано выше напрямую также относится к музыке и музыканту.

Надо сказать, я в жизни очень часто испытываю эти "муки творчества", описанные Гомбричем, практически во всех жизненных ситуациях и во всех делах, что мне приходится делать.

  • Материалы за этот период