30 ноября, 2006
Brand equity is the value built-up in a brand. It is measured based on how much a customer is aware of the brand. The value of a company's brand equity can be calculated by comparing the expected future revenue from the branded product with the expected future revenue from an equivalent non-branded product. This value can comprise both tangible, functional attributes and intangible, emotional attributes.
Some marketers distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is known as the brand experience. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people and consists of all the information and expectations associated with a product or service.
An investment in brand equity is commonly claimed to work through the creation of brand knowledge. This knowledge in turn consists of two aspects of a brand: brand image and brand awareness. Brand image, in this context, consists of the mental associations consumers make with the brand. Brand awareness is composed of the strength of the brand in consumers' minds, for example their ability to recall the brand.
A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition. Where brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand franchise. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without the name of the company present.
Attitude branding is the choice to represent a large feeling or emotion, which is not necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the product at all. Marketing labeled as attitude branding include that of Nike, Starbucks, Safeway, and Apple Computer.